Sunday, November 22, 2020

Karijera i biznis

Naučite ZAUVEK vremena u engleskom jeziku uz metodu laku kao pesma! (+TABELA)

Kada treba da se buba gramatika engleskog jezika, ne zna se kome je teže, školarcima ili odraslima. Najveći problem, kažu, je kako razlikovati vremena i kada primeniti koje. Stoga smo za sve one koji muku muče kako da nauče vremena u engleskom jeziku prpremili pravu poslasticu – najveći svetski hitovi, koje svi znate da pevušite, a koji sadrže svih 12 vremena!

Pre nego što se bacimo na posao, pogledajte ovu tabelu koja prikazuje odnos svih vremena:

vremena u engleskom jeziku

Kao što vidite, postoje tri vremena:

  • PRESENT (sadašnjost)
  • PAST (prošlost) i
  • FUTURE (budućnost)

Ok, ovo je lako, baš kao kod nas. A šta sa ovom uspravnom kolonom? U njoj nam se nalaze četiri aspekta, modaliteta, u kom se mogu naći sva vremena:

  • SIMPLE (jednostavno prošlo, sadašnje ili buduće vreme)
  • CONTINUOUS (što označava trajnost neke radnje)
  • PERFECT
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS

A sada da se bacimo na posao!

#1 PRESENT SIMPLE

Present simple koristimo da opišemo navike i rutine, kao i opšte poznate činjenice:

I drink cofee every morning.
Cathy works as a teacher.
Shawn goes to the beach on Sundays.
Children often play video games after school.
You sing very well.
Water boils at 100 degrees.

Kako se gradi: subject + verb

OneRepublic: I lived

Hope when you take that jump
You don’t fear the fall
Hope when the water rises
You built a wall
Hope when the crowd screams out
They’re screaming your name
Hope if everybody runs
You choose to stay

#2 PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Koristimo ga da opišemo radnju koja se dešava upravo sada, dok razgovaramo. Dakle, dok čitate ovaj tekst, neko od vas pije kafu ili doručkuje, dok napolju pada kiša.

I am drinking coffee right now.
We are having breakfast.
It is raining outside.

Druga svrha ovog vremena je da opiše trenutne, aktuelne aktivnosti i dešavanja:

Arun is learning to play the guitar.
I am watching a really interesting TV series at the moment.
My sister is staying with us for a couple of weeks.

Treća uloga je da opišu promene i događaje koji se upravo dešavaju:

English lessons on YouTube are becoming very popular these days.
The price of crude oil is falling rapidly.
Scientists say that the Earth is getting warmer.

Kako se gradi: subject + am/is/are + verb (+ing)

Susanne Vega: Tom’s dinner

I am sitting in the morning
At the diner on the corner
I am waiting at the counter
For the man to pour the coffee.

Okej, znamo šta su present simple i present continuous. Hajde sada da pogledamo past simple i past continuous.

#3 PAST SIMPLE

Služimo se njime kada govorimo o nečemu što se zbilo (i završilo, okončalo) u prošlosti.

I played soccer with my friends last Saturday.
Karen gave us a present for our wedding anniversary.
We received the package this morning.
My grandfather built this house in 1968.
Antonio lived in Malaysia for five years.

Kako se gradi: subject + verb

Adele: Someone like you

I heard that you’re settled down
That you found a girl and you’re married now
I heard that your dreams came true
Guess she gave you things, I didn’t give to you.

#4 PAST CONTINUOUS

Ovo vreme govori o nečemu što se zbivalo, a nije završilo, a što je prekinuto nečim drugim. Na primer, čitali ste o tome kako se grade vremena u engleskom jeziku, a onda je zazvonio telefon.

I was having dinner with my family when the doorbell rang.
It was raining when Priya left for work.
The power went out while the children were studying.
While we were waiting at the bus stop, we saw a car accident.

Kako se gradi: subject + was/were + verb (ing)

Taylor Swift: Love story

That you were Romeo, you were throwin’ pebbles
And my daddy said, “Stay away from Juliet”
And I was cryin’ on the staircase
Beggin’ you, “Please don’t go, ” and I said…

Pre nego što nastavimo dalje, hajde uradimo kratak pregled i poređenje ovih vremena.

PRESENT SIMPLE
I drink coffee every morning.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
I am drinking coffee right now.

PAST SIMPLE
I drank coffee yesterday.

PAST CONTINUOUS
I was drinking coffee this morning when I got a phone call from my boss.

Spremni za nova vremena u engleskom jeziku?

vremena u engleskom jeziku

Prelazimo na malo zahtevnije forme, ali nemojte se plašiti! Ovde ne učimo pravila i izuzetke napamet, već stvaramo jasnu i trajnu sliku kako vremena funkcionišu. Kad imate dobar temelj, onda je lako nadgraditi znanje – a znamo da dobro poznavanje engleskog garantuje višestruke benefite.

#5 PRESENT PERFECT

Ovo vreme ima dve glavne funkcije: da govori o iskustvima, ali u kontekstu da taj period nije okončan.

I have taught English to many students.
Ashley has visited France four times.
We have seen two movies this week.

Dakle, “vreme radnje” se nastavlja na neki način: u prvoj rečenici zaključujemo da profesor i dalje predaje engleski; u drugoj da će Ešli možda još koji put posetiti Francusku, a u trećoj nije nemoguće odgledati još koji film, jer se sedmica nije završila.

Druga uloga ovog vremena je da prikaže nedavne događaje i aktivnosti:

I have finished my homework.
Artur has lost his glasses.
The police have arrested a young man in connection with the robbery.

U ovom drugom slučaju, ne stavljamo vreme kada se nešto desilo – ukoliko je potrebno navesti tačno vreme, onda koristimo past simple.

Kako se gradi: subject + have/has + verb

U2: I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For

I have climbed the highest mountains
I have run through the fields
Only to be with you
Only to be with you
I have run I have crawled
I have scaled these city walls
These city walls
Only to be with you.

 #6 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Ovo vreme opisuje situacije koje su počele u prošlosti, a i dalje traju.

I have been waiting to see the doctor for two hours.
He has been playing tennis since he was a child.
She has been learning English for eight months.
We have been living in this town for a very long time.
It has been raining all morning.

Kako se gradi: subject + have/has been + ver (ing)

Rihhana: Where have you been

I’ve been everywhere, man
Looking for someone
Someone who can please me
Love me all night long
I’ve been everywhere, man
Looking for you babe
Looking for you babe
Searching for you babe

Where have you been?

 

#7 PAST PERFECT

Koristimo ga kada imamo dve paralelne radnje u prošlosti i želimo da naglasimo šta se prvo dogodilo.

When we got to the theater, the movie had started.
I was sick because I had eaten too much the previous night.
The girl looked very familiar. I had seen her somewhere before.
Joel rushed to his boss’s office, but she had gone home already.

Kako se gradi: subject + had + verb

Gotye – Somebody That I Used To Know

#8 Past perfect continuous

Ovo vreme je isto kao past perfect, s tim što je prva radnja u prošlosti trajna. Dakle, govori o nekom kontinuitetu u prošlosti, koji se zbivao nakon što je druga radnja završena. Na primer, dugo ste se mučili s bubanjem vremena u engleskom, dok niste otkrili Berlitz platformu za online uživo učenje jezika.

I felt really tired because I had been driving all day.
She had been waiting for two hours when the doctor finally arrived.
The ground was wet because it had been raining.
When he quit his job at the factory, he had been working there for 12 years.

Kako se gradi: subject + had been + verb (ing)

Hold Ya Head – The Notorious B.I.G (feat. Bob Marley)

Woman hold her head and cry
Cause her son had been shot down in the street and died.

Prošli smo najteže – hajde sad da poređamo ove perfecte i pogledamo njihov odnos:

PRESENT PERFECT
I have washed the dishes.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
I have been washing the dishes for half and hour.

PAST PERFECT
When I left for work, I had washed the dishes.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
When the phone rang, I had been washing the dishes for half and hour.

A sada prelazimo na vedrija i lakša vremena – budućnost u engleskom jeziku!

Photo by Artem Beliaikin from Pexels

#9 FUTURE SIMPLE

Postoje tri načina da izrazimo “jednostavnu budućnost”:

  • Going to
  • Present continuous
  • Will

Going to koristimo kada želimo da izrazimo planove i namere.

We are going to buy a car.
I am going to start exercising regularly.
Rob is going to take a vacation from work.

Kako se gradi: subject + am/is/are + verb

Ukoliko želimo sa saopštimo nešto što je više od plana, što je već započeto, tada koristimo present continuous.

I am having lunch with my parents on Saturday.
We are flying to Mumbai the day after tomorrow.
Josh is giving a presentation to the board of directions on the 10th.

Kao što vidite, uopšte se ne razlikuje od present continuous, osim što ima dodatu vremensku odrednicu.

Kako se gradi: subject + am/is/are + verb (ing)

Will koristimo da izrazimo odluke koje smo upravo doneli, dogovore, obećanja.

Yes, I will have the burger and fries combo, please.
The pnone is ringing. I will get it.
I will help you with these files.
I will give you a ride home.
I will pay you back next week.
We will respond within two business days.

Kako se gradi: subject + will + verb

Napomena: i will i going koristimo za predviđanje situacije, s tim što:

  • will koristimo za pretpostavke bazirane na našem iskustvu, znanju, razmišljanju: I think Spain will win the 2021. World Cup.
  • ukoliko je predviđanje neka očigledna činjenica, nešto što možemo da vidimo, tada koristimo going: Look at the sky. It is going to rain soon.

#10 FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Ovo vreme koristimo za radnje u budućnosti koje imaju trajanje, da će biti u progresu u nekom trenutku u budućnosti. Na primer, neko vas je povao u šetnju uveče, a vi kažete da nećete moći, jer ćete celo veče vežbati futur u engleskom jeziku. Tada kažete:

I can’t. I will be learning until late.
At 11 am tomorrow, I will be driving to Portland.
I will be staying at the Hilton hotel in Portland.

Kako se gradi: subject + will be + verb (ing)

Puff Daddy: I’ll Be Missing You

Every step I take,
Every move I make
Every single day,
Every time I pray
I’ll be missing you

#11, #12: FUTURE PERFECT I FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

Sad kada smo videli koja vremena postoje, kada ih koristimo i u kakvoj su korelaciji, predlažemo da se bacite na vežbu! Počnite od 5 vremena koja se najčešće koriste u govornom i pisanom engleskom jeziku:

  • simple present (57.51%)
  • simple past (19.7%)
  • simple future (8.5%)
  • present perfect (6.0%)
  • present continuous (5.1%)

Vežbajte uz muziku, filmove, knjige, u pasivu i aktivu, odričnom i potvrdnom obliku… a kada budete plivali kao riba u vodi među ovim vremenima, možete znanje proširiti i ostalim.

Ukoliko vas posebno zanima neko od vremena u engleskom jeziku, pišite nam u komentarima!

 

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